State : District : Location : Add Location
Home India Andhra Pradesh Anantapur

 Anantapur district General information

Anantapur, lying in the westernmost part of Andhra Pradesh, is the largest district with an area of 19,130 sq km. It is bounded by Kurnool District in the north, Cuddapah District in the east, Chittoor District in the south and the state of Karnataka in the west. Anantapur is believed to have got its name from 'Anaantasagaram', a large body of water, which means 'Endless Ocean'. The villages of Anaantasagaram and Bukkarayasamudram were constructed by Chilkkavodeya who was the minister of Bukka-I, a Vijayanagar ruler. Anantapur is popularly known as Hande Anantapuram, 'Hande' meaning 'chief of the Vijayanagar period'. The Vijayanagar rulers had gifted Anantapur and a few other places to Hanumappa Naidu of the Hande family. Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan later ruled over Anantapur.

Dharmavaram, situated 47 km from the district headquarters Anantapur, is famous for its cotton and silk weaving industry. Thimmamma Marrimanu, an amazing 550 year old banyan tree mentioned in the Guinness Book of Records, is 100 km from Anantapur.

Anantapur District is also famous for its historic forts such as Gooty Fort, Rayadurg Fort, Hemavathi Fort and Penukonda Fort. Puttaparthi, the home of Sri Sathya Sai Baba also lies here.

The nearest airport is at Bangalore. The railhead at Anantapur is on the Hyderabad-Bangalore broad gauge line. The best period to make a visit is from September to February.

Religious festivals and fairs that are held throughout the year attract millions of devotees. In accordance with the Agamas, traditional rituals are also observed.


History

Anantapur offers some vivid glimpses of the prehistoric past. It is generally held that the place got its name from 'Anaatasagaram', a big tank, which means "Endless Ocean". The villages of Anaantasagaram and Bukkarayasamudram were constructed by Chilkkavodeya, the minister of Bukka-I, a Vijayanagar ruler. Some authorities assert that Anaantasagaram was named after Bukka's queen, while some contend that it must have been known after Anantarasa Chikkavodeya himself, as Bukka had no queen by that name.

Anantapur is familiarly known as "Hande Anantapuram". 'Hande' means chief of the Vijayanagar period. Anantapur and a few other places were gifted by the Vijayanagar rulers to Hanumappa Naidu of the Hande family. The place subsequently came under the Qutub Shahis, Mughals, and the Nawabs of Cuddapah, although the Hande chiefs continued to rule as their subordinates. It was occupied by the Palergar of Bellary during the time of Ramappa but was eventually won back by his son, Siddappa. Morari Rao Ghorpade attacked Anantapur in 1757. Though the army resisted for some time, Siddappa ultimately bought off the enemy for Rs.50,000.

It then came into the possession of Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Tipu hanged all the male members of the Siddappa family except Siddappa who escaped from his confinement at Srirangapatnam. After Tipu's death, it was once again taken back by Siddappa. Siddappa submitted himself to Nizam because of the treaty of 1799, who took the total control of the area. He was later pensioned off when British occupied the territory.

Anantapur  District was formed in the year 1882  having been separated from Bellary District.

Later on, it was  expanded with  the addition  of Revenue  Mandals  of Kadiri, Mudigubba, Nallamada, N.P.Kunta, Talupula,   Nallacheruvu,  O.D.Cheruvu, Tanakal, Amadagur and Gandlapenta (previous Kadiri  Taluk)  from Cuddapah  District in the year 1910.

During the year  1956,  the present   Revenue  Mandals  of Rayadurg, D.Hirehal, Kanekal, Bommanahal  and  Gummagatta  of Bellary District were added  to Anantapur District.

The District has been divided into 3 Revenue Divisions  consisting of 63 Revenue Mandals (Anantapur  Division 20, Dharmavaram Division 17 and Penukonda Division 26).


Geography

Anantapur  District lies between 13'-40' and  15'-15' Northern Latitude and 76'-50' and 78'-30' Eastern Longitude.  It is  bounded by Bellary, Kurnool District on the North,  Cuddapah and Kolar  Districts  of Karnataka  on South  East  and   North respectively. The  District  is roughly oblong  in shape,  the longer  side running North to South with a portion of  Chitradurg District of Karnataka State intruding into it from west between Kundurpi and Amarapuram Mandals.

The  District may be divided into 3 Natural  Divisions. They are 1) Northern Mandal of Rayadurg, Kanekal,  Beluguppa Gooty, Guntakal,  Vajrakarur, Uravakonda, Vidapanakal,  Yadiki, Tadipatri, Putlur and Yellanur containing larger areas of  Black Cotton  soils (2) Kalyandurg, Kambadur, Settur,  Brahmasamudram, Ramagiri, Kanaganapalli, C.K.Palli,  Dharmavaram,  Bathalapalli, Tadimarri, Mudigubba, Anantapur, Kudair, Pamidi and  Peddavadugur in the center which are mainly made up of arid Treeless,  expense of  poor  Red Soils, (3) High Level Land  of Penukonda, Roddam, Somandepalli, Hindupur, Lepakshi, Chilamathur, Madakasira, Rolla, Gudibanda and Agali which connects with Mysore plateau at  higher elevation  of  the rest of the District. This part has  average sandy red soils of normal productivity.

It is bounded by Bellary, Kurnool District on the North, Cuddapah and Kolar District of Karnataka on South East and North respectively. The District is roughly OBLONG in shape, the longer side running North to South with a portion of Chitradurg District of Karnataka State intruding into it from west between Kundurpi and Amarapuram Mandals.


Climate

The  District of Anantapur has a fairly good  elevation which provides the District with tolerable climate throughout the year.  It has a gradual fall from the South North towards  the valley  of the Pennar in Peddavadugur, Peddapappur and  Tadipatri Mandals. There is a gradual rise in Hindupur, Parigi,  Lepakshi, Chilamathur, Agali, Rolla and Madakasira Mandals in the South  to join  the Karnataka Plateau where the average elevation is  about 2000 feet is above the mean sea level. It is about 1100 feet  at Anantapur and the lowest 900 feet is at Tadipatri.

The  Geographical position of the Peninsula render  it, the  driest part of the State and hence,  Agriculture conditions are more often precarious. Monsoons also evades this part due to its unfortunate location. Being far from the East coast, it does not enjoy the full benefits of North East Monsoons and being  cut off  by the high western Ghats, the South West Monsoon  are  also prevented  from  penetrating and punching the  thirst  of  these parched soils. It is therefore seen, the district is deprived of both the monsoons and subjected to droughts due to bad  seasons. The  normal  rainfall of the district is 553.0 MMs. by  which  it secures  least  rainfall when compared to Rayalaseema  and other parts of Andhra Pradesh. The normal rainfall for the South West Monsoon period is 338.0 MMs. which forms about 61.2% of the  total rainfall  for the  year.  The failure  of  the  rains  in  this South West  monsoon period of June to September  will  lead  the District to drought by failure of crops. The rainfall for  North East  monsoon period is 156.0 M.Ms. only, which forms 28.3%  M.Ms. of  the total rainfall for the year (October to  December).

The other months are almost dry March, April and May are warm  months when  the normal daily maximum temperature ranges between 29.1 C to 40.3 C. November,  December  and  January  are cooler  months  when the temperature  falls  about  15.7 C,  Hindupur, Parigi,  Lepakshi, Chilamathur,  Agali, Rolla and Madakasira Mandals being  at  High Elevation  are  more cooler than the rest of the Mandals in  the District.


Forest

The  Forests in the District are thin and scanty.  The Muchukota Hills about 35 KMs. in length, run from North of  Gooty Town  upto extreme Southern  Corner  of Tadipatri  and  Yadiki Mandals. Another line of Hills starts from West of Gooty  Mandal and  run  80  KMs.  called  by name Nagasamudram  Hills. The Mallappakonda Range begins at Dharmavaram and runs into Karnataka State.

The   Penukonda   Range  which starts  in  the South  of Dharmavaram through Penukonda and Hindupur proceeds to Karnataka State.

In  Madakasira,  the  hills divides  Rolla  and  Agali Mandals into Southern and Northern portions.


River

The important river in the District is Pennar. It has its origin in the Nandi Hills of Karnataka State where it  is called "UTTARA PINAKINI" and enters this District in the extreme South  of  Hindupur  Mandal and flows  through Parigi,  Roddam, Ramagiri, Kambadur, Kalyandurg, Beluguppa, Uravakonda,Vajrakarur,Pamidi,  Peddavadugur, Peddapappur  and  Tadipatri Mandals  and finally enters Cuddapah District.

Soil
 
The  soils in Anantapur District are predominantly  red except Kanekal, Bommanahal, Vidapanakal, Uravakonda,  Vajrakarur, Guntakal, Gooty,  Pamidi, Peddavadugur,   Yadiki,   Tadipatri, Yellanur, Peddapappur and Putlur mandals. In these Mandals  red  and black soils occur almost in equal proportion. Thus  76% red soils, 24% are black soils.


Population
 
 
There are 929 inhabited villages, out of 964 total Revenue villages of the District. The number of villages in size group of 500 to 1999 forms 36.71% of the total inhabited villages . The size group of 2000 to 4999 forms 38.64% and the size group of 5000 to 9999 forms 12.81% only out of total villages, while 84 villages ( 9.04%) of total inhabited villages are having population less than 500. There are 26 villages with more than 10000 population excluding Towns.

Tourist Place

Gugudu,Lepakshi,Kasapuram,Alurkona,Pennaahobilam,Gutibayalu,Puttapathy,Penukonda,Hemavathi,Rayadurg Fort,Gooty Fort,Tadipatri,Sri Kadiri Laxmi Narasimha Swamy Temple,Dharmavaram,Jambu Dweepa at Konakondla