East Godavari district General information
The East Godavari District is located in the North Coastal part of the state of Andhra Pradesh. The District boundaries are Visakhapatnam, West Godavari, Khammam Districts and Bay of Bengal.
The District is known as rice bowl of Andhra Pradesh with lush paddy fields and coconut groves. It is also known as another Kerala. East Godavari, it is the Rice Granary of Andhra Pradesh, beckons tourists to have a glimpse of its rich cultural heritage. Where the lush paddy fields swaying in the breeze appear to dance in a celebration to life.
It is where soulful bhajans and holy shlokas herald the dawn. Where the chirping birds and gurgling streams invite you to the beautiful lakes and wild life sanctuaries. The East Godavari district is having the area of 10,807 Sq Kms with 5 Revenue divisions, 60 Revenue mandals and 1011 Grama panchayats with a population of 48,72,622 as per 2001 provisional census figures. The District Head Quarters, Kakinada is famous for a sweet called Kotaiah’s KAJA.
The history of East Godavari district like the rest of Andhra may be traced to the period of the Nandas. Mahapadma Nanda, the founder of the Nanda dynasty, led expeditions and defeated several monarchs of the north and the Deccan, thus making the Nandas, monarchs of a large portion of the Deccan. Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Mauryan dynasty assumed control over the empire which included, a large portion of the Deccan. He was succeeded by his son, Bindusara (297-272 B.C.). Bindusara was followed on the throne by Ashoka.
After the Mauryas, the district passed under the away of the Satavahanas. The accession of Hala in about 6 or 7 A.D. lasted for only one year. Though there were no events of political importance during his reign, he won for himself a niche among the great poets of all time. the rule of Gautamiputra Satakarni ( A.D. 62-86). Vasishthiputra Pulumayi (A.D. 86-114) and Yajna Sri Satakarni (A.D. 128-157) is evident from the coins excavated. The Satavahanas appear to have ruled till the first quarter of the third century A.D.
Samudragupta, the Gupta ruler, who invaded this district in A.D. 350 came into conflict with the rulers of both, Pishtapura and Avamukta. The local rulers joined the rulers of neighbouring principalities to resist the onslaughts of the Gupta ruler. however, the outcome of this united opposition is not known. Samudragupta's invasion was followed by the rule of a line of kings belonging to the Matharakula. Their rule extended roughly from 375 A.D. to 500 A.D. The earliest known ruler of the dynasty was Maharaja Saktivarman. The districts passed into the hands of the Vishnukundin during the rule of Vikramendravarma I. They ruled for over two centuries from the first quarter of the 5th Century A.D. or slightly earlier. The records discovered indicate that their dominion extended over Vishakhapatnam, West Godavari, Krishna and Guntur besides the present East Godavari district. Ranadurjaya, a member of the Durjaya family, ruled pistapuram or Pithapuram as a Vassal of Vikramendravarma in recognition of his services to the State. Another Vishnukundin ruler Indrabhattaraka, defeated the rulers of Vasish-Takula and re-established his authority over this region. His success was, however, shortlived. The early Gangas of Kalinga with the support of some petty rulers, completely routed Indrabhattaraka's army. This resulted in Vishnukundin's power suffering a severe set-back. Indrabhattaraka was followed on the throne by a few others belonging to the same family. madhavavarma III was the last important ruler of this family. Madhavavarma III was, however, killed in a battle. He was succeeded by his son, Manchannabhattaraka who strove hard to maintain his hold over the ancestral dominion without much success.
Later, the western Chalukya ruler of Badami, Pulakesin II, with the help of his brother Kubjavishnu, attacked Pistapura and emerged victorious. Kubjavishnu was given the newly acquired territories in the east, in token of appreciation of the services rendered by him.
The rulers of Eastern Chalukya dynasty founded by Kubjavishnu, ruled first from Pistapura, next from Vengi and then from Rajamahendri (Rajahmundry). Chalukya Bhima I, who ruled furing A.D.892-921, built a temple in honour of Siva at Draksharama. In the subsequent period which marked a civil war for power, Amma I, son of Vijayaditya IV, came out victorious and ruled the kingdom for seven years. He was succeeded by his son Vijayaditya V, who was ousted from power within a fortnight of his accession. He was compelled to take refuge in the fort of Pithapuram, where he founded a dynasty.
In the early British period, the Constituent parts of the district were at first, administered by the Chief and Council at Machilipatnam, but in A.D. 1794 Collectors who were made directly responsible to the Board of Revenue, were appointed at Kakinada and Rajahmundry. Several changes took place in the administration of district till A.D. 1859 when the districts of Rajahmundry, Machilipatnam and Guntur were reconstituted into Godavari and Krishna districts. The execution and extension of the great irrigation schemes, on the Godavari and Krishna rivers and the enormous increase in work consequent on the improvement, in the methods of administration, rendered the Collectors task of efficiently controlling these two wealthy areas extremely difficult. Therefore, Godavari and Krishna districts had to be again readjusted. In 1904, the taluks of Yernagudem, Eluru, Tanuku, Bheemavaram and Narsapur (excluding the Nagaram island) were transferred to Krishna. On the 15th of April 1925, Krishna district was again bifurcated and West Godavari district was constituted. The residuary portion of Godavari district was named as East Godavari district with its headquarters at Kakinada. East Godavari district then consisted of the taluks of Raja-hmundry, Amalapuram, Nagaram, Bhadrachalam, Polavaram, Yellavan, Chodavaram, Peddapuram, Ramachandrapuram, Kakinada, Pithapuram, Tuni and Nugur. Subsequently, in 1942 Polavaram taluk was transferred to West Godavari district. The headquarters of Nagaram taluk was shifted to Razole in 1947. During the same year, Kothapeta taluk was formed. An important change that occurred subsequently in the territorial jurisdiction of the district was, the transfer of Bhadrachalam and Nugur taluks to Khammam district in 1959, because of their geographical contiquity and also for reasons of administrative convenience. From then onwards the district did not undergo any changes in its territorial jurisdiction for quite sometime. At 1961 Census, the district consisted of 12 taluks viz., Kakinada, Amalapuram, Razole, Kothapeta (IST), Ram-achandrapuram, Rajahmundry, Peddapuram, Prathipadu (IST), Tuni (IST), Pithapuram (IST), Rampachodavaram (IST) and yellavaram (IST). The last two were Agency Taluks. In July 1969, two independent sub-taluks namely, Alamur and Mummidivaram were formed out of Ramachandrapuram and Amalapuram taluks respectively. At 1971 Census the district thus consisted of eight taluks and six independent sub-taluks grouped under four Revenue Divisions-Kakinada revenue division comprising of Kakinada and Pithapuram (Independent sub-taluk); Rajahmundry revenue division with the taluks of Rajahmundry, Ramachandrapuram, Alamur (Independent sub-taluk) and Rampachodavaram (Independent sub-taluk), Peddapuram revenue division comprising Peddapuram taluk, Prathipadu taluk, Tuni (independent sub-taluk) and Yellavaram (independent sub-taluk) and Amalapuram revenue division with the constituent taluks of Amalapuram, Kothapeta, Razole and Mummidivaram (independent sub-taluk).
East Godavari District can be broadly classified into three natural divisions namely the Delta, Upland and Agency or hill tracts. The general elevation of the district varies from a few meters near the sea to about 300 meters in the hills of the agency. The Eastern Ghats rise by gradations from the level of the coast and spread throughout the erstwhile agency Taluks of Rampachodavaram and Yellavaram.
The delta portion constituting the whole of Konaseema and portions of Kakinada, Ramachandrapuram and Rajahmundry erstwhile Taluks, presents a vast expanse of rice-fields surrounded by plantain, betel, coconut gardens and innumerable palmyrahs.
The erstwhile Taluks of Tuni, Pithapuram, Peddapuram and Portions of Kakinada, Ramachandrapuram and Rajahmundry constitute the upland areas.
The main soils in the district are alluvial (clay loamy) red soil, sandy loam and sandy clay. There is mostly alluvial soil in Godavari delta and sandy clay soil at the tail end portions of Godavari river, red loamy soil in upland and agency area of the district.
East Godavari District is situated on the North - East of Andhra Pradesh State.
The Headquater of District is Kakinada
Kakinada is 564KM away from Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh Headquater
East Godavari District lies between 16o 30" to 18o 20" North Latitude and 81o 30" to 82o 36" East Longitude
The District Boundries are
* North :Visakhapatnam District and Orissa State
* East :Bay of Bengal
* West :West Godavari District
* South :Bay of Bengal
* Northwest :Khammam
As per Provisional population figures of 2001 Census, the total no of Mandals are 59. However as per G.O.Ms.No.31, Revenue (Registration & Mandals) Department, Dated 05-06-2002 a new Rural Mandal Routhulapudi (44 villages) with head quarters at Routhulapudi was formed by transferring certain villages from Sankhavaram (12 villages), Kotananduru (31 villages) and Tuni (1 village) Mandals, there by making total number of Mandals to be 60.
The Climate is comparatively moderate throughout the year except during the months of April to June when the temperature reaches a maximum of 48 deg. Centigrade. The normal rainfall of the district is 1280.0 mm.
More than half of the rainfall i s brought by South-West Monsoon while a large portion of the rest of the district receives rainfall from the North-East Monsoon also, during October and November.
Main Rivers of East Godavari are
1. River Godavari
2. River Pampa
The District is well connected by Rail and Road link. The National Highway connecting Chennai and Howrah passes through this district. Chennai to Howrah line also passes through this district. The district is also having an Airport at Madhurapudi near Rajahmundry which is 65 Km's from district headquarters Kakinada and 15 Km's from Rajahmundry.
East Godavari District is situated in Krishna Godavari Agro Climatic Zone, It is one of the agriculturally potential districts in Andhra Pradesh, contributing about 10% of the total food production of the State.
It is broadly classified into 5 Agro Climatic Zones (i.e)
1. Central delta comprising 16 mandals
2. Eastern Delta having 15 mandals
3. Upland area with 19 mandals
4. Agency area with 8 mandals
5. Urban area with 2 mandals
Paddy : The major crop grown in the District is Paddy which is cultivated both in Kharif & Rabi as Irrigated and Un Irrigated crop. During Kharif 2001 an area of 2.10 Lakh Ha of area is cultivated as Irrigated Paddy and the production is 8.42 Lakh Tons with a productivity of 3994 Kg/Ha (Paddy). Further in an area of 9930 Ha Paddy is grown as Un Irrigated crop with a production of 0.17 Lakh Tons and productivity of 1716 Kg/Ha. During Rabi 2001 - 02 Paddy is grown in an area of 1.66 Lakh Ha and the production is 10.97 Lakh Ha with a productivity of 6625 Kg/Ha.
Maize : Maize crop grown both in Kharif and Rabi, In Kharif 2001 the crop is grown in an area of 2495 Ha with a production of 6442 Tons and productivity is 2582 Kg/Ha. In Rabi 2001 - 02 an area of 3241 Ha is covered with Maize and production is 10770 Tons with a productivity of 3323 Kg/Ha.
Jowar : In Kharif 2001 Jowar crop is grown in 999 Ha of area and the production is 1094 Tons with a productivity of 1095 Kg/Ha.
Pulses: Black Gram & Green Gram are the major crops grown under Pulses in both Kharif and Rabi in East Godavari District. An area of 15931 Ha is covered with Black Gram in the year 2001 with a production of 5958 Tons and the productivity is 374 Kg/Ha.
Oil Seeds : Under Oil Seeds major crops grown are Sesamum and Ground Nut in both Kharif & Rabi. In Kharif 2001 an area of 2843 Ha is covered under Sesamum and the production is 640 Tons and productivity is 225 Kg/Ha. In Rabi 2001-02, 1629 Ha of area is covered with Sesamum and the production and productivity are 459 Tons and 282 Kg/Ha respectively.
Sugar Cane : In the year 2001 Sugarcane crop is grown in 15778 Ha of land and the production and productivity are 1410 Lakh Tons and 8940 Tons/Ha respectively.
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