Garhwa district General information

The erstwhile Garhwa Subdivision of Palamau district consisting of 8 Blocks was separated from Palamau district as an independent district “Garhwa” with effect from 1st April 1991. It is situated on Southwest corner of Palamau division, which lies between 23060’ and 24039’ north latitude and 83022’ and 84000’ east longitude. The district is   surrounded  by river Sone in the north; Palamau district  and  area  of Chhatisgarh in the south; Palamau district in the east and Sarguja district of Chhatisgarh and Sonebhadra district of U.P. in the west.

Garhwa district is a part of Palamau Commissionery consisting of 14 blocks and two subdivisions namely Garhwa & Nagar-Untrai. At the time of creation of new district Garhwa, there were eight old blocks namely   :-   1. Garhwa,    2. Meral,    3. Ranka,    4. Bhandariya,     5. Majhiyaon,    6. Nagar-Untrai,  7. Bhawanathpur,     and   8. Dhuraki. Later on 6 new  locks were created from old blocks on administrative ground namely         1. Dandai,           2. Chiniya,        3. Kharoundhi,        4. Ramna,        5. Ramkanda and          6. Kandi.

 So presently there are 14 blocks in Garhwa district. There are 156 Gram Panchayats. 916 inhabited villages and 62 un-habited (Bechiragi) villages in this district. This district has two police sub-division named Garhwa and Nagar-Untrai. With eight police stations i.e. 1. Garhwa 2. Meral 3. Ranka  4. Bhandariya  5. Majhiyaon           6. Nagar-Untrai  7.Bhawanathpur    and   8. Dhuraki.     The district contains only one Municipal town at Garhwa head quarter. The Municipal town has a brief history. On 6th May 1924. the Garhwa Union Board was created under the village administration Act of 1922. when it become Union Board. Its board consisted of five elected and two nominated members and they worked under part-IV of the above-mentioned Act. The Union Board administered the function of Conservancy and sanitation including drainage of local area, street lighting and the prevention of public nuisance there in. On 9th August 1957 Garhwa Union   Board was abolished  and in  its place  a Notified  Area Committee  was established by the Government Notification no. 6991-L.S.G., dated 14th June 1957. The N.A.C. area consisted of there villages: Garhwa (Thana No.- 339), Tandawa (Thana No. 338), Sahijana (Thana No. 345), Dipawa (Thana No. 341), Nagawa (Thana No. 340). Pipara Kala (Thana No. 342), Unchari (Thana No-241) and Sonpurawa (Thana No- 242), Later on this N.A.C. got the status of Municipality. It has been working as Municipality since 15 August 1972.

Natural Formation

    The average elevation of Garhwa district in about 1200 feet above the mean sea level. The hills in the district are widely scattered. There are also low land in Northern and Western part of the district which is suitable for agricultural purposes. The hill which is called Gulgulpath –3819 ft. is said to be second highest peak in Jharkhand or joint Bihar after Paras Nath situated in Bhandriya Block of the district. A village Saruat situated on hill Gulgulpath is well worth a visit by the hikers. The village is occupied mostly by Korwas, a tribal people.

River System:

    The general line of drainage is from south to north towards the river Koyal and Sone. Koyal forms the eastern boundary and Sone forms northern boundary of the district. There are also a host of smaller streams, most of which are from mountain currents with rock stream beds. Other important rivers of the district are Danro, Sarsatiya, Tahale, Annaraj, Urea, Bai Banki, Bellaiti, Pando, Biraha, and Sapahi. Other notable river is Kanhar which forms south eastern boundary of the district for about 80 K.M. Due to its Geographical formation Garhwa district is rich in water resources.

Early History

        The  early  history  of  this   district depends on the  history of  Palamau district. The district      consisted  mostly  of  forest  tracts. The   territory  seldom  attracted  the  attention  of     invading  armies.  So  the  area  remained   outside  the  pale  of dominating empires. In the past the   area  was probably  in habited by  tribal  people. It  is   believed that  the  three aboriginal  races  viz the Kharwars, the Oraons and Cheroes practically  reigned over this tract. The Cheroes reigned over  Garhwa  for nearly 200 years from sixteen  century   to onwards. The most  famous  among Chero rules  was  Medani Rai.1857 Movement


Demographic profile

           The Garhwa district is primarily rural and most of the population resides in villages. Tribal population of the district still lives in forest tract. The speed of urbanization has been extremely slow due to rural economy based on agriculture. Total population of the district as per 1991 census was 801239. In 2001 census the population of the district has been recorded 1034151. In 2001 census the rural population was recorded 991492 as against the urban population of 42659. In urban population Garhwa municipality has recorded 36708 and sinduria CT (bhawanathpur) has been recorded 5951 souls. Form previous census 1991 to present census 2001, the rate of urban growth to this district had been 53.72 percent. Which is second highest in Jharkhand state after godda district. The percentage of decadal growth (1991-2001) of the Garhwa district is 29.05, which is highest in the Jharkhand state. Out of total population of the district, scheduled cast consist 26.32% and scheduled tribe consist 19.91%. The sex ratio is adverse for females in Garhwa like other district of Jharkhand. Garhwa has a sex ratio of 935:1000. In rural area it is 938 female against 1000 male and in urban areas  864 female against 1000 male.

Climate Condition

                   The climate of this district is on the whole dry and bracing. The year can be divided in to three main seasons, the winter season form November to March, the summer season is from March to May and Monsoon season from June to September; October is a transitional month between Monsoon and Winter seasons. The average annual rainfall for the district as a whole is 1.335 mm/ 52.55 inches. From the onset of the Monsoon by the middle of June, rainfall rapidly increases reaching the peak level in August. The annual variation  of rainfall is not much. December and January are the coolest months. By March temperature begin to rise steadily. In May and early part of June the maximum temperature can be as high as 470C on individual days. Humidity is generally normal in this district, except in Monsoon months.


Garhwa has no historical background in facility for education or educational institution.Most of the educational institution has been opened after independent. There are 476 primary school, 145 middle schools and 19 high schools in this district. There is also 4-project girls high school. 3 Residential high school and 6 Buniyadi vidyalaya and one navodaya vidyalaya in this district. Literacy rate of this district is 39.39 in which male literacy rate is 54.69 as against the female literacy rate of 22.91. This district has a poor literacy rate as against the average literacy rate (54.13) of Jharkhand state. CD.Block chinia has the lowest female literacy rate of 11.03 in all 212 C.D. Block of state of Jharkhand. This district has two colleges for higher education but both are not well established. It is because more then half of the students migrate for other places for higher education. In previous year 2001 Honorable CM. of Jharkhand inaugurated a I.T.I. at Garhwa. In near future it will be on important source of technical know how and employment. Govt. is also planning to open a politechnique college in Garhwa. 

Flora and Fauna

     In Garhwa district more than 40% area of the total land is under forests. Forest are the source of the revenue and meet peoples demand for timber, firewood, Fodder, etc. Many of the villages of this district lies in thick forest area. The mixed Miscellaneous forest consist of the following species:- Khair , Asan , Karam , Guri , Sidha,  Mahua ,   Gamhar, Bid ,Semal, Piar , Bel , Dhaura , Salai , Kusum,  Sisam etc. As data available total area of forest cover is 267541.50 acre out of  which   181218.76 acre is dense forest. The extensive forest is abode of so many types of wild animals. In the thick forest of Bhandariya and Ranka wild animals like Elephant, Leopard, Hyena, Jackle, Fox, Dear, Boar, Rabbit, Monkey, Beer, are found.


    As the district is rich in minerals , so commercial  exploitation of  minerals   are done here. The important minerals being commercially exploited are limestone and dolomite . Though this district is rich in minerals , there is no any heavy industry in the district . There are tiny and college  industries based on local needs . There is no agricultural  based industry in public or private sector . So it  is true here is a agriculture based economy and more than 80% of the population depend on agriculture.

Mines & Minerals

    The district is rich in mineral. In the form of dolomite lime stone occurs at many places in the district. Surrounding area of Bhawanathpur and Nagar-Untari blocks are rich in dolomite there in also coal deposits in in Bhandariya block. Deposits of Graphite, China clay and Granite are also available in this district.

Prime places

 Ketar: Goddess Bhagawati is the deity being worshipped by the people of Ketar, this location is a worthy spot of visit with great architectural values in it.

 Nagar-Untari : The Radha Krishna Mandir is a famous spot of visit here; the fame is because of the golden idols which are worshipped here.

 Kanjia : Located 70 km from the district headquarters you have a spiritual serene location of Christian belief The Catholic Ashram which dates back to 1937 is a monument to this 21st


 Sukhaldari: This is located on the banks of the river Kanahar in Dhuraki, such a beautiful environment of nature and its pleasure is filled in here with a gorgeous waterfalls, nearby there are some more waterfalls such as Parasdiha fall in Bhawanathpur which is 50 km from the district headquarters and Gursandhu fall in Ranka will be a splendid spots of visit indeed.

 Raja Pahari : Here you have Lord Shiva temple for worship, this spot is also a blessed landscape by nature and its marvel around.

 Saruat Pahar : This is a location on the highest side of the peak where you have the Korba tribe is dwelling. This spot of exuberance has the Hisatu fall which could be the starting point of the Haraiya river form here. Being the highest peak over the state this location is sumptuous on scenic attraction with raw wildlife living in the jungle.

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