Sant Kabir Nagar district General information
Sant Kabir Nagar district is one of the 70 districts of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. Khalilabad town is the district headquarters. Sant Kabir Nagar district is a part of Basti Division. The district is bounded on the north by Siddharthnagar and Maharajganj districts, on the east by Gorakhpur district, on the south by Ambedkar Nagar district and on the west by Basti district. The district occupies an area of 1659.15 km2.
District Sant Kabir Nagar is a newly created district in the eastern belt of U.P.. The district came to be known by its present name on account of Sant Kabir, the well known Sant (poet) and philosopher, lived at Maghar in the district. District Sant kabir nagar was created on September 5, 1997 from district Basti. including 131 villages from tahsil Basti, and 161 from tahsil Bansi of district Siddharth Nagar. The district lies among Gorakhpur in the east, Basti in the west, Siddharth Nagar in the north and Ambedkar Nagar in the south.. According to the district statistical department the district covered an area of 1659.15 sq. km. According to the census of 1991 the district has a population 1162138 persons of which 605533 are males and 556505 females of which 81718 persons, resided in urban areas and 1080420 in rural areas. The population density of the district is about 700 per sq. km. while 472 is of the state.
The district,in spite of its apparent uniformity of aspect, it divided topographically into several distinct tract namely, the low valley of the Ghaghra in the south, extending from that river to its tributary, the Kuwana; the central upland ,between the latter river and the Rapti; and the low and ill-drained paddy belt between the Rapti and others.
The district has two main river systems namely, the Ghaghra and Rapti, both of which ultimately form a part of the great Gangetic system. The other streams of the district are the Kuwana,its tributaries are, the Rawai, The Manwar and the Katnehia, and the Ami is a tributary of Rapti.
River Ghaghra is formed by the combined waters of Kauriyala,Girwa, Chauka and other streams, which have their origin in the mountains of Kumaun and Nepal. The Ghaghra forms the southern boundary of the district, from its entry opposite the sacred town of Ayodhya,where for a short distance it is usually known as the Saryu,as far as Belghat on the border of Gorakhpur. The river flows continually shifting cannel within a broad sandy bed. During the rains it carries as immense volume of water, but in dry weather it shrinks to small dimensions. The river has a constant tendency to change its course during the floods, and in this manner large tracts of land from time to time are transferred either to the northern or southern banks, rendering the total area of the district subject to incessant variation. These changes have occasionally been accompanied by the formation of large islands and deep stream rule prevails, the constant shifting of the jurisdiction of such lands from one district to another results in considerable inconvenience.
Tributaries of the Ghaghra:- The Ghaghra receives directly hardly any of the drainage of the district, as exception the immediate neighborhood of its bands, all the surplus water is intercepted by its affiance. Occasionally the river overflows its banks and submerges the adjoining lowlands, with the result the water is actually transferred from the river to the Manwar or Kuwana. The latter, in its lower reaches near Bhanpur, is joined with the Ghaghra by cross channel and from that point onwards it acts as an arm of the Ghaghra.
The Kuwana also known as Kuano, rises in the low ground in the east of Bahraich district and thence flows through the centre of Gonda. It first touches the district in the stream west of Rasulpur. It then separates the Basti east pargana from Basti West, Nagar West, Nagar East and after passing through Mahuli West and Mahuli East leaves the district in the south-Easter corner, at short distance from its junction with the Ghaghra in Gorakhpur.
TRIBUTARIES OF THE KUWANA :-It has several tributaries, the important ones being Rawai,Manwar and Katnehia.sees in the :
The Rawai joins the Kuwana on the right bank and is a small stream which rises in the north of Amorha and thence flows between steep and sandy banks frequently infected with reh, through the western half of paragana Basti for a short distance and ultimately joins the Kawana.
The Manwar Manorama, rises in Gonda and flows in an easterly direction along the edge of Sikri forest to the district boundary. For a short distance it separates the latter district from Gonda and is then joined by the Chamnai, a small and sluggish stream. after the junction the Manwar bents to the south-east and flows through the centre of pargana Amorha, on the eastern boundary of which it receives a small tributary called Ramrekha on its right bank. It then passes through the two paraganas of Nagar East and Nagar West and joins the Kawana in Lalganj in Mahuli West.
The only tributary of any importance that is received by the Kuwana on its left bank is the Katnehia, which rises in the swamps to the north of Basti East and flows in the south easterly direction along the borders of the Nagar East, where it units with the Garehia, a similar stream which has its origin in the south of Rasulpur. Their combined water continues in a south easterly direction along the borders of Nagar East and Mahuli West parganas, then turning south to join the Kuwana at Mukhlishpur in Mahuli East.
This river rises in the foot hills of Nepal to the north of Behraich and after course of about 130 km. from that district traverses to the northern portion of the Gonda and first touches Sant Kabir Nagar in the north-west.
The tributaries and affluents of the Rapti are very numerous, especially those on the left bank. Those on the south represent merely old bends of the river and as such are of little importance, save as local drainage channels. The chief of these is the Ami.
The Ami is the chief tributary of the Rapti. The Ami is a stream which commences at a short distance from Rapti in Rasulpur and issues from a large tract of paddy land.
The lakes of the district are numerous and several of them are of considerable size. They are most commonly formed by the changes in the river channels, while in the other cases the natural depressions in which the surface of water collects, are generally due in some measure to fluvial action. The largest and the most celebrated lake in the district is the Bakhira or Badhanchh Tal, sometimes calles the Moti Jhil, which lies on the eastern borders of the district between Bakhira and Mehdawal. This lake though seldom more than two metres in depth, covers a very large area of about 8 km. long and 3 km. broad. The water in the lake is largely derived from the overflow from Rapti.
The district is underlain by Quaternary alluvium comprising and of various grades, gravel, kankar and clay. The Alluvium can be classified into two groups, the Older alluvium and the Newer alluvium.
Older alluvium:- It is of middle Pleistocene age and generally occupies high ground which is not affected by floods during the rainy season.
The Newer alluvium :- It covers the lower height and is mainly conferred to the flood plains along the river channels and belongs to the upper Pleistocene to the recent age.
Kankar:- Substantial deposits of kankar are available in the tahsil of Harriya only.
Reh :- Reh is also reported from some localities of the district.
The climate of the district is more equable than the adjoining districts to the south.The year may be divided into four seasons. The winter season, from mid-November to February is followed by the summer season lasting till about the middle of June. The period from mid-June to the end of September constitutes the south-west mansoon season. October to mid-November is the post mansson or transition period.
Rainfall :- The average annual rainfall in the district is 1166 mm.
Temperature :- During the winter seasons the mean minimum temperature is about 9 degree Celsius and mean maximum 23 degree Celsius while during the summer seasons the minimum is about 25 degree Celsius and mean maximum is about 44 degree Celsius.
Humidity :- In the south-west mansoon and the post mansoon seasons the relative humidity is high, being above 70 percent. Thereafter the humidity decreases and in the summer air is very dry.
Cloudiness :-During the mansoon season, and for brief spells of a day or two in association with passing disturbances in winter, heavily clouded or overcast skies prevail. In the rest of the year the skies are mostly clear or lightly clouded.
Winds :- Winds are in general very light with a slight increase in force the late summer and mansoon seasons. The average annual wind blow in the district is ranging from 2 to 7.1 km/hrs.
In the former days a large part of the district was covered with forest of sal and other trees, but since then most of it has been cleared and brought under the plough . Though the district is no longer rich in timber, it can still be described as well-wooded, owing to the numerous clumps of mango (Mangitera indica), mahua (Madhuca longifolia), sal (Sorea robusta), and bamboo (Bambusa arundinacea).
Plantations of fast growing species such as bamboo, Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus teritrornis), mango and shisham (Dalbergia sissoo) have been raised in the district.
The wild animals which are found in this district include the nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), antelok (Anelok cervicapra), pig (Sus scrofa), wolf (Canis lupus), jackal (Conis aureus), fox (Vulpes bengalensis), hare (Lepus ruficandatus), monkey (Macaca mulatta), wild cat (felis bengalensis) and the porcupine (Hystric leucura) .
The game - birds of the district include the usual varieties found through out the plains. Among them mention may be made of the peafowl(pavo cristatus), the black partridge (frencolinus francolinus) and the gray partridge(francalinus pondicervanus). Basti is famous for the number and variety of water fowls which visit it during the winter season. The goose (Anser anser), comon teal (Anas crecca), red-cristed pochard duck(netta rufina), white-eyed pochard (aythya rufa) and widgeon (mareca penelope) visit the district only in winter and inhabit the fringes of rivers lakes and swamps.
Snakes are common in the district especially in the rural areas, the chief being the Cobra (Naja Naja), karait (Bungarus caeruleus), and rat-snake (ptyas mucosus). Indian crocodile or naka (Crocodilus pulustris), and the ghariyal (gavialis gangeticus) are also found in the river Ghaghra.
Fish of almost all the varieties that occur elsewhere in the state are found in the rivers, lakes and ponds of the district, the common species being rohu (lebeo rohita), bhakur (Catla catla), nain (Cirrhina mrigala), parhin (Wallagonia attu), krunch (lebeo calbasu), tengan (Mystus seenghla) and etc.
The concept of general education normally includes education from the Primary stage to the University stage. The pattern and system of education is uniform all over the state. According to the census 1991 the literacy percentage is of about 33.00 in the district.
District Sant Kabir Nagar is mainly agricultural based district. About 80 percent population is directly depend on agricultural based activities. There is a lack of having large scale Industries in the district Sant Kabir Nagar, there is only about 10 industries including large and medium scale in which only 4 units presently are in working condition. In 4 working units 2 are papers mills and 2 are refind oil. In these 4 units total Rs. 10.21 crore is invested and total 585 persons are employed. Total Rs. 33.93 crore in invested in remaining 6 units in which Khalilabad Sugar Mills unit has been closed from last few years. Apart from large and medium scale industries there about 1100 are small scale industries and 618 are village and cottage industries in which nearly 5339 and 1206 persons are working respectively.
It is situated on the road from Mehndawal to Khalilabad in Lat. 26 55' N. and Long. 83 5' E., 16 km. north of the tahsil headquarters and about 18 km. from the district headquarters. Other roads lead to Gorakhpur in south-east and to Bansi and Rudhauli in north-east.
Bakhira is particularly known on account of the great lake , Moti Jhil (or Badhanchh Tal), which extends to a few kilometers to the east. The name Moti Jhil is said to have been bestowed upon it by Nawab Saadat Ali Khan, who frequently resorted here for hunting.
Bakhira is a market village, but the name is commonly applied to the bazar of Baghnagar, practically, an adjoining site , and the two are always treated as one, Bakhira was formerly the capital of a large domain granted by raja Sarbjit Singh of Bansi to an illegitimate son. In course of time the Babus of Bakhira acquired an independent position. In Buchanan's time their fort was strongly defended by a mud rampart, with a ditch and bamboo hedge. In the freedom struggle Babu Ram Pratap Singh made himself conspicuous by attacking and destroying the Bakhira police-station; and for this and other offences he was hanged and his lands forfeited to the government.
According to the census of 1971 it had a population of 294 persons and covered area of 70.01 ha. Market is held here twice a week, the main article of trade being agricultural produce, generally food-grains, brought by cultivators, the arrival of wheat in the busy season being in the range of 100 to 150 quintals per market day. Bakhira is also noted for the brass and bronze metal work. The whole sale dealers from Mirzapur, Varanasi and Moradabad visit this place and generally purchase new utensils against old scrap.
Hainsar lies in Lat. 26 33' N. and Long 83 3' E., at a distance of about 4.8 km. east of Dhanghata and about 32 km. from district headquarters. The Ghaghra flows at some distance to the south.
At the time of the first freedom struggle Hainsar (Hardo) belonged to a Suryavansi named Lal Jagat Bahadur. On account of his active participation in the struggle, his property was confiscated and bestowed on loyal to the rulers.
A weekly market is held here on every Tuesday and Friday and considerable business is done in food-grains, cloth, and the blankets which are manufactured here. Its importance had grown on account of the river born traffic which passed through it.
The place had a population of 2766 and covered an area of 91.4 ha. It has a post-office, a junior Basic school, a senior Basic school and a dispensary. It falls under Dhanghata police-station and is the head-quarters of the development block of the same name.
Khalilabad lies in Lat. 26 47'N. and Long. 83 4' E., on the road from Faizabad to Gorakhpur. It is the headquarters of this new district Sant Kabir Nagar.
The place derives its name from its founder, Qazi Khailil-ur-Rahman, who was appointed chakladar of Gorakhpur about 1860.
At present this place is more famous for its handloom cloth market, popularly known as Bardahia Bazar.
The tahsil building, situated to the south of the road to Gorakhpur, is an imposing structure created after the first freedom struggle in 1857 in which the place was sacked.
The town is situated in Lat. 26 45'N. and Long. 83 8'E., on the main road from Gorakhpur to Faizabad at a distance of about 7 km. south-west of the district headquarters.
Maghar, a place of considerable antiquity, is not of much present day importance, except as a place of pilgrimage. It is celebrated as containing the cenotaph and shrine of saint poet Kabir.
The shrine is still an object of pilgrimage for both Hindus and Musalmans. He undoubtedly attacked both creeds unsparingly, yet both agree that he was holy man, in whose teaching was some thing akin to their own faith, and that he was worthy of worship. Both flock with equal devotion to his shrine., regarding which many local legends are current. One story related that in the course of his wanderings he reached Maghar, where he probably died. His disciples disputed over his body, the different parties desiring to perform the last rites as directed by the precepts of their creeds. The quarrel was considered fruitless as it was believed that he was alive and living at Vrindaban near Mathura.
It is said that he sent words to open his grave, and when the grave was opened, nothing was found but a delectable fragrance. The traditional date for this event is 1274, though Kabir did not really die till about 1450. His shrine was, however, created forthwith. The shrine was rebuilt by Nawab Fidai Khan, who garrisoned Maghar about 1567. According to another theory, Bijli Khan, the adopted son of Pahar Khan of Ghazipur is described as rebuilder of the edifice. The custody of the shrine from the beginning remained with a Julaha family and its maintenance was provided for by the revenue free grant of a village in pargana Maghar east.
The village of Tama is situated in Lat. 26 degree 42' N. and Long. 83 degree 7' E., at a distance of about 8 Km. from district headquarters. It is famous for its Mahadev temple(TAMESHWAR NATH), the idol of which is said to have suddenly sprung up in the forest near the village. It was discovered by herdsmen and has since been an object of peculiar sanctity. A fair is held here on the occasion of Shivratri, which is attended by about 31,000 persons.
The idol formerly stood in the open surrounded by a plinth, but eventually one of the Bansi rajas erected a temple over it at the same time excavating a well and a large tank with the flight of stone steps. He also planted a mango grove and placed some Goshains of Unaula in Gorakhpur in charge, giving them the revenue free grant of a whole village.